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General Concepts

Description — General Concepts in the API and How to Work With Them

Synchronous and Asynchronous APIs

The whole Couchbase Lite API comes in both a synchronous and asynchronous version. The synchronous version is more efficient and slightly more convenient to use, but has the downside that it blocks the current Isolate.

In UI applications, such as Flutter apps, this is problematic. Blocking the UI isolate for too long causes janky animations, or worse, makes the app unresponsive. With only a synchronous API available, the solution would be to offload the work to a worker isolate. That is what the asynchronous API does in a transparent way.

Unless you are noticing the performance impact of the overhead of the asynchronous API, use the asynchronous API.

To support writing code that works with both synchronous and asynchronous APIs, synchronous and asynchronous APIs always extend from a common base class that uses FutureOr wherever a result could be synchronous or asynchronous.

Take for example this simplified version of the Query API:

abstract class Query {
// The common base class leaves open whether the results are returned
// synchronously or asynchronously.
FutureOr<ResultSet> execute();

abstract class SyncQuery extends Query {
// The synchronous version of `Query` returns results directly.
ResultSet execute();

abstract class AsyncQuery extends Query {
// The asynchronous version of `Query` returns results in a `Future`.
Future<ResultSet> execute();

FutureOr can be awaited just like a Future, so by programming against Query your code works with both the synchronous and asynchronous API:

/// Runs a query that returns a result set with one row and one column and
/// returns its value.
Future<int> runCountQuery(Query query) {
final resultSet = await query.execute();
final results = await resultSet.allResults();
// Returns the first column of the first row.
return result[0].integer(0);

Change Listeners

Certain objects allow you to register change listeners. In the case of synchronous APIs, all changes are delivered to the listeners as soon as they are registered.

With asynchronous APIs, changes are only guaranteed to be delivered once the Future returned from the registration call is completed:

// Await the future returned from the registration call.
await database.addChangeListener((change) {
print('Ids of changed documents: ${change.documentIds}'):

// The listener is guaranteed to be notified of this change.
await database.saveDocument(MutableDocument.withId('Hey'));

To stop receiving notifications, call removeChangeListener with the token that was returned from the registration call. Regardless of the whether the API is synchronous or asynchronous, listeners will stop receiving notifications immediately:

final token = await database.addChangeListener((change) { });

// Some time goes by...

await database.removeChangeListener(token);

Change Streams

Streams are a convenient alternative to listen for changes. Similarly to change listeners, change streams returned from synchronous APIs are receiving changes as soon as the stream is subscribed to.

Streams returned from asynchronous APIs start to listen asynchronously. Unfortunately it's not possible to return a Future from Stream.listen to signal to subscribers the point in time after which the the stream will observe events. Instead, asynchronous APIs return AsyncListenStreams, which expose a Future in AsyncListenStream.listening that completes when the stream is fully listening:

final stream = database.changes();

stream.listen((change) {
print('Ids of changed documents: ${change.documentIds}'):

// Await the Future exposed by the stream.
await stream.listening;

// The stream is guaranteed to be notified of this change.
await database.saveDocument(MutableDocument.withId('Hey'));

If you only ever open the same database file once at any given time, you don't need to await the listening future. In this case the stream will always observe all subsequent events.

To stop listening to changes just cancel the subscription, like with any other stream.

Closing Resources

Some types implement ClosableResource. At the moment these are Database and Replicator. Once you are done with an instance of these types, call its ClosableResource.close method. This will free resources used by the object, as well as remove listeners, close streams and close child resources. For example closing a database will also close any associated replicators.